As I have previously mentioned, I am currently researching, analyzing, and annotating documents for ALPHA Education’s Digital Archive Project as a volunteer. For this project, I was asked to discuss the content and broader historical context of each document. Annotations are also expected to connect documents to APLHA Education’s mission, which is to foster awareness of Asia’s World War II history to further the values of justice, reconciliation, and peace. The following is a copy of my annotation for a declassified Biological Warfare (BW) Report written 28 June 1945 that investigates the Japanese use of BW in Changteh, Hunan Province, China. The attack, which took place on 4 November 1941, occurred when a low flying Japanese bomber plane dropped plague infected grains of rice and particles under the veil of heavy fog. This document was declassified by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) on 14 August 2009.
Unit 731 BW Reports—Interview Chinese Doctor—Japanese Intelligence Targets in Far East, June 1945Unit 731 - BW Reports - Interview - Chinese Dr - Japanese Intelligence Targets in Far East, June 1945
Annotation:ALPHA ED Annotation Changteh BW Attack
Bärnighausen, Till. “Data generated in Japan’s Biowarfare Experiments on human victims in China, 1932–1945, and the ethics of using them.” In Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics, edited by Jing-Bao Nie, Nanyan Guo, Mark Selden, and Arthur Kleinman, 81-102. New York: Rutledge, 2010.
Devolder, Katrien. “U.S. Complicity and Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Time for a Response.” The American Journal of Bioethics, 15(6): 40-49, 2015, DOI: 10.1080/15265161.2015.1028659.
Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare, 1932-1945, and the American Cover-up. New York: Psychology Press, 2002.
Keiichi, Tsuneishi. “Unit 731 and the Japanese Imperial Army’s Biological Warfare Program.” Translated by John Junkerman. In Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics, edited by Jing-Bao Nie, Nanyan Guo, Mark Selden, and Arthur Kleinman, 23-31. New York: Rutledge, 2010.
Li, Peter. “Japan’s Biochemical Warfare and Experimentation in China.” In The Search for Justice: Japanese War Crimes, edited by Peter Li, 289-300. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 2003.
Nie, Jing-Bao. “The United States Cover-up of Japanese Wartime Medical Atrocities: Complicity Committed in the National Interest and Two Proposals for Contemporary Action.” The American Journal of Bioethics, 6(3): W21-W33, 2006, DOI: 10.1080/15265160600686356.
Wang, Suzy. “Medicine-Related War Crimes Trials and Post-War Politics and Ethics.” In Japan’s Wartime Medical Atrocities: Comparative Inquiries in Science, History, and Ethics, edited by Jing-Bao Nie, Nanyan Guo, Mark Selden, and Arthur Kleinman, 32-53. New York: Rutledge, 2010.
Williams, Peter and David Wallace. Unit 731: The Japanese Army’s Secret of Secrets. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1989.